1. When did speculations begin and how?
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During the so-called "Peace and War Studies" of World War II between the US government and Wall Street global financiers and some academics headed by Isaiah Bowman, then president of Johns Hopkins University, the most important decision was that the United States would be heir to the British Empire. The adoption of globalization as the choice of the new empire which is the colonialism in a new name and new tools, one of the decisions that one of the requirements of the empire of the age to be the currency of the global reserve currency. Therefore, the dollar was adopted instead of the sterling as the reserve currency. It was recommended that the IMF, the World Bank, the United Nations and the Free Trade Organization, which were not approved by Congress at the time, be replaced by GATT. These institutions were publicized in Bretton Woods in 1944.
In order to make the US dollar the global reserve currency, Bretton Woods also agreed on the fixed-exchange-rate regime, meaning that the national currency was fixed against the dollar at a fixed …
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